A new study is now showing that severe early childhood caries could be caused by another significant bacteria, Scardovia wiggsiae.

This study showed that while children with early childhood caries normally have Streptococcus mutans, there is another bacteria that is present in large numbers, too, S. wiggsiae.  Early childhood caries occurs when an anaerobic bacteria ferments a sugar compound, creating acid in the mouth.  This leads to erosion of already susceptable teeth and cavities as well as caries disease.  In the study, children known to have caries disease and caries-free children were tested for the different microbiota in their mouths.  This study concluded that because S. wiggsiae was present in such high concentrations, that it is very likely to be the reason that children with caries disease continue to have more and more cavities, even if they are combating the S. mutans bacteria.